Windows Windows Server

How to Migrate Roles and Features to Windows Server 2022 using WSMT

Windows-Server
Migration with WSMT

Since Windows Server 2003, the Windows Server Migration Tools (WSMT) have been included. They can be used by administrators to migrate roles and features to a newer version of the operating system. Because Microsoft hasn’t updated these tools in a long time, they exhibit some bugs when used with Server 2022. Nonetheless, when upgrading Windows Server, the WSMT remains a viable option. There are alternatives to WSMT depending on the role you want to migrate to. With Windows Server 2019, Microsoft introduced the Storage Migration Service for file servers. When updating domain controllers, administrators usually install a new server and replicate the Active Directory database and SYSVOL. However, WSMT is still useful when migrating roles like DHCP as well as several local settings like users and groups. These guides may be of interest to you: What is ADK, MDT, Microsoft Endpoint Configuration Manager (SCCM), Intune, Autopilot, and WSUS, how to Deploy MVC Application to AWS EC2 Using RDP Connection and Web Deploy, Network File System: How to install NFS Server on Windows Server and how to install and Configure Hyper-V on Windows Server on Windows Server 2019, and 2022 via the Server Manager, PowerShell or DISM.

Installing and Running WSMT

Install the Windows Server Migration Tools on the destination server using the Server Manager GUI. Installing the tools with PowerShell is also possible, as shown below:

Install-WindowsFeature Migration –ComputerName <computer_name>
WSMT-Installation
WSMT Feature

After installing the WSMT on the destination server, the workflow allows you to deploy these tools to the source server. In this case, I’m using a UNC path, which is supported.

Deploy-WSMT
Deploy the server migration tools from the destination server to the source server using the UNC path
After executing the above command, the SMT_ws16_amd64 directory is automatically created on the source server.

Common Errors

WSMT usually displays a number of buggy behaviors during testing on newer servers. After you’ve deployed the tools to the source server, you should run the SmigDeploy.exe command to automatically register the PowerShell cmdlets. Several errors might occur during this process. Such errors include:

  • .NET errors indicate that.NET was not installed, even when it was.
  • When registering the cmdlets, PowerShell crashes.
  • Errors relating to access denied and memory corruption

Navigate using PS C:\SMIG\SMT_ws16_amd64>dir path to the SmigDeploy.exe file directory published to the source server from the destination server, you will be able to see the contents of the SmigDeploy.exe file. Running this file registers the PowerShell cmdlets on the source server.

Workarounds for the WSMT Bugs

The solution is to simply install WSMT on the source server instead of using the published WSMT from the destination server. After installing the Windows feature on the source server, you will need to manually register the snap-in using the following cmdlet:

Add-PSSnapin Microsoft.Windows.ServerManager.Migration

Then, you can run the Export-SmigServerSetting cmdlet to export roles and features. The export cmdlet below will do this for you:

Export-SmigServerSetting -featureID <your FeatureID> -User All -Group -path c:\SMIG -Verbose

Once the feature ID is exported, you can then import the features on the destination server using the import cmdlet.

Import-SmigServerSetting -FeatureID <your FeatureID> -Path <path to the source export> -Verbose

In summary, for several years, Microsoft has not enhanced the WSMT. As a result, you’ll almost certainly run into some frustrating bugs while using them with Windows Server 2022. Nonetheless, they’re still valuable in situations where you don’t have access to newer tools or if an in-place update isn’t possible.

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